Issue 3 (17) 2012

Orlova Russian Pre-Revolutionary Laws and Civilistics on the Legal Capacity of Natural Persons

Russian Pre-Revolutionary Laws and Civilistics on the Legal Capacity of Natural Persons

O.B. Orlova

Perm State National Research University
15, Bukirev st., Perm, 614990
E-mail: OrlоThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Since the days of ancient Russia the concept of "capacity" has not changed - there was no legal definition, although the law and the scientists applied a priori to the viability of isolated individuals dependent on various circumstances, which were subsequently codified. The sources are often used concept of legal capacity, but without any indication as to their semantic distinction.

In Russian law defining criterion for any legal action, was the will of a person as a «theory of the Will» (Hegel) is actually substituted the category of disability, and the «theory of interest» (R. Yering) acted as a precondition for the possibility of self-enjoyment. Restrictions were signs of birth, gender, health, social status, education and religion. Birth. In an illegitimate child lacked the right to belong to the estate, inheritance, name, etc. Later this fact has lost its value. Such a restriction of rights, it was recognized by society inhumane towards children. Paul. Women are universally recognized as limited capability – or the authority of parents or husband, or older relatives. It was impossible to take any legal action without getting out the will of men. While scientists continue to recognize the woman a core set of rights and responsibilities, major changes in legislation have been made. Nevertheless, society has to recognize the possibility of an independent woman of the civil rights against the property, children, and participate in processes that directly affect its rights and obligations. Health. For individuals, the mentally unhealthy, the state has become more lenient: opened hospitals and orphanages. This category of citizens has become recognized as members of society with a certain set of rights and responsibilities. The most important guarantor of this Institute acted incurred guardianship. Regulated procedures for recognition of citizens' mentally ill, there was the possibility of recognizing individuals - capable. The social status. In connection with the state system, this criterion has played a significant role, was easily applicable to the determination of capacity: the higher the status of the Estates, the large set of rights possessed man.

Education and religion are fundamental in determining the amount of capacity, but could affect the set of rights and responsibilities when they are self-implementing.


Keywords: legal capacity; expression of will of a person; birth; sex; health; social status; education; religion


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