Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2018. Issue 3 (41)


V. G. Golubtsov, Perm State University

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORCID: 0000-0003-3505-2348
ResearcherID: H-4690-2015
Articles of «Scopus» & «Web of Science»:       DOI: 10.5829/
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.15.8.11538
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.24.01.13176
DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2016-32-175-184
DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2017-38-474-483
DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2018-40-158-166 
Requisites: Golubtsov V. G. Reforma obyazatel'stvennogo prava: teoreticheskiy i prakticheskiy effekt sostoyavshikhsya izmeneniy [Reform of the Law of Obligations: Theoretical and Practical Effect of The Changes Introduced]. Vestnik Permskogo Universiteta. Juridicheskie Nauki – Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2018. Issue 41. Pp. 396–419. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2018-41-396-419
DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2018-41-396-419

Introduction: dealing with scientific knowledge about obligations involves complicated and diligent work on comprehending the essence of the legislative changes, which is necessary to evaluate the sufficiency of the legislative decisions. The subject of the author’s attention are the relation between the general and special norms of the law of obligations and such a specific method of obligation fulfilment as taking over the debt. The author also addresses terminological issues of the branch of law in question by researching the legislative enshrinement of such normative constructions as the interest on the financial obligation and the right of the creditor to claim in court for the in-kind fulfilment of the obligation (astreinte). Analyzing changes and amendments in the system of obligations, the author touches upon the problems of fulfilling subsidiary obligations of regulatory nature and fulfilment of obligations by a third party. The task of the present research is to focus the attention of civil law scholars on the problems of the obligation law theory that are unresearched, little-researched or simply have not yet been noticed by the doctrine. Purpose: based on the backbone postulates on obligations, to targetedly address the certain issues of the law of obligations in its post-reform period. In the author’s opinion, a detailed analysis of specific innovations and reformed institutions can help to clarify the intentions of the legislator and the results of the introduced reform of the law of obligations. Methods: the methodological basis of the research is the general scientific (dialectical) method of cognition of the obligation law and its norms. Specific scientific methods (formal-juridical, logical, systematic approaches) were also used. Results: relative legal relations are heterogeneous and have their own system, which has not yet been studied by modern civil law science. Obligations are a part of this system. Its other parts are the corporate, restitutionary and secundarious relations. This classification is a methodological reference point for scientific judgements concerning the corresponding fragments of the general subject matter of obligations. The correct positioning of obligations in the system of all the relative relations is one of the necessary fundamentals for judgements about the correlation between general and special norms in the law of obligations. The author qualifies it as the substitutional one with the priority of special norms, which are a primary resource. And only after this resource is exhausted and after the lack of special norms is discovered, general norms on obligations are applied, those included into Chapters 21–26 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. As for the problem of using the term “obligation” in the financial law science and budget legislation, the author invokes the arguments of the representatives of terminological science (terminology studies) and comes to a conclusion that there are no grounds to speak about the inter-branch migration, borrowing and re-terminologization. “Obligation” is a universally used term. For civil law, the relevant term is “civil law obligation”, which implies the corresponding legal phenomenon and branch-specific notion. For finance law, it is “financial (tax, budget) obligation”. The author has also formulated a proposal to possibly use such a scientific notion as “regulatory subsidiary obligation”. Having researched the problem of the fulfilment of the obligation not personally by the debtor but by a third party, the author claims that the problem of entrusting a third party with a duty to perform the obligation falls within the sphere of relations between the third party and the debtor and does not affect the interests of the creditor. Thus, the provisions on imposing the fulfilment of the obligation on the third party by a debtor should be excluded from Item 1 of Article 31 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: general and special norms; borrowing and re-terminologization;
fulfilment of the obligation by depositing the debt; fulfilment turnover; regulative subsidiary obligation; imposition
  download the full-version article
References: 1. Barinov A. S. Institut nalogovykh obyazatel'stv v nalogovom prave Rossiyskoy Federatsii: dis. ... kand. jurid. nauk [Institution of Tax Obli¬gations in the Tax Law of the Russian Fe¬deration: Cand. jurid. sci. diss.]. Moscow, 2017. 217 p. (In Russ.).
2. Belov V. A. Grazhdanskoe pravo [Civil Law]. Vol. IV. Osobennaya chast'. Otnositel'nye grazhdansko-pravovye formy: uchebnik dlya bakalavriata i magistratury. Seriya: Bakalavr i magistr. Akademicheskiy kurs [Special Part. Relative Civil Law Forms: Textbook for Ba¬chelor's and Master's Students. Series: Bache¬lor and Master. Academic Course]. Moscow, 2015. 1085 p. (In Russ.).
3. Bol'shoy enciklopedicheskiy slovar' "Jazyko¬znanie"; gl. red. V. N. Jarceva [Big Encyclo¬pedic Dictionary of Linguistics; ed. by V. N. Jar¬ceva]. Moscow, 1998. 686 p. (In Russ.).
4. Vasilevskaya L. Ju. Instituty inostrannogo prava v grazhdanskom kodekse Rossiyskoy Federatsii: novoe regulirovanie – novye pro¬blemy [Foreign Law Institutions in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation: New Regu¬lation – New Problems]. Sud'ya – Judge. 2016. Issue 10. Access from the legal-reference sys¬tem "Garant". (In Russ.).
5. Vashhenko Ju. S., Jakushina L. N. Slovar' ino¬yazychnykh terminov grazhdanskogo prava [Dictionary of Foreign-Language Terms of Civil Law]. Togliatti, 2005. 81 p. (In Russ.).
6. Vashhenko Ju. S. Inojazychnaya juridicheskaya leksika v zakonodatel'nykh tekstakh: istoriya pojavlenija, sovremennye tendencii i puti raz¬vitija [Foreign-Language Legal Terms in Legislative Texts: the Story of the Emergence, Current Trends and Ways of Development]. Gosudarstvo i pravo – State and Law. 2018. Issue 1. Pp. 53–64. (In Russ.).
7. Vinaver M. M. Iz oblasti civilistiki. Nedavnee (vospominaniya i kharakteristiki); sost. i avt. vstupit. st. A. L. Makovskij [From the Field of Civil Law. Recent Past (Memoirs and Chara¬cteristics); ed. by A. L. Makovskij]. Moscow, 2015. 384 p. (In Russ.).
8. Golubtsov V. G. Obespechitel'nyy platezh v sis¬teme sposobov obespechenija grazhdansko-pravovykh objazatel'stv [Security Payment in the System of Ways to Provide Civil Obliga¬tions]. Zakonnost' i pravoporjadok v sovremen¬nom obshhestve – Legality and Law Order in Modern Society. 2016. Issue 29. Pp. 47–52 (In Russ.).
9. Golubtsov V. G. Sistema sposobov prekra-shheniya grazhdansko-pravovykh objazatel'stv: itogi reformirovaniya [System of Ways to Terminate Civil Obligations: Results of Refor¬ming]. Chastnoe pravo. Preodolevaya ispyta¬niya: K 60-letiyu B. M. Gongalo [Private Law. Coping with Challenges: to the 60th Birthday of B. M. Gongalo]. Moscow, 2016. Pp. 144–159. (In Russ.).
10. Grazhdanskiy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Postateynyy kommentariy k razdelu III "Ob-shchaya chast' obyazatel'nogo prava"; pod red. L. V. Sannikovoy [Civil Code of the Rus¬sian Federation. The Itemized Comment to the Section III "General Part of the Law of Ob¬ligations"; ed. by L. V. Sannikova]. Moscow, 2016. 662 p.
11. Eremenko A. S. Konkurentsiya norm grazhdan¬skogo prava v mekhanizme juridicheskoy kvali¬fikatsii grazhdanskikh otnosheniy [The Compe¬tition of Civil Standards in the Mechanism of Theory of Civil Relationships]. Vestnik Ud¬murtskogo universiteta. Seriya Ekonomika i Pravo – Bulletin of Udmurt University. Series Economics and Law. 2011. Issue 3. Pp. 109–114. (In Russ.).
12. Zapol'skij S. V. Ponyatie i pravovaya priroda finansovykh objazatel'stv [Concept and Legal Nature of Financial Obligations]. Problemy sovershenstvovaniya sovetskogo zakonodatel'¬stva [Problems of Improvement of Soviet Le¬gislation]. Moscow, 1986. Pp. 29–43. (In Russ.).
13. Ivanova T. N., Monchenko O. V. Frantsuzskiy astrent na rossiyskiy maner: primenenie i pravovoe regulirovanie sudebnoy neustoyki v svete novogo postanovleniya Plenuma Verkhov¬nogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii № 7 ot 23.03.2016 "O nekotorykh voprosakh prisuzh¬denija vzyskatelju denezhnykh sredstv za neis-polnenie sudebnogo akta" [French Astrent the Russian Style: The Use and Regulation of the Judicial Penalty in the Light of the New Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court on 03/23/16 No. 7 "On some Issues of Awarding Funds to the Claimant for Non-Enforcement of the Act"]. Vestnik arbitrazhnoj praktiki – Vestnik Arbitrazhnoy Praktiki. 2016. Issue 2(63). Pp. 3–14. (In Russ.).
14. Ioffe O. S., Tolstoj Ju. K. Novyy grazhdanskiy kodeks RSFSR [New Civil Code of the RSFSR]. Pravovedenie – Pravovedenie. 1964. Issue 3. Pp. 3–21. (In Russ.).
15. Komissarova E. G. Problema oborota ispolne¬niya objazatel'stv putem vnesenija dolga v depozit notariusa. Sb. nauchnykh trudov, po¬svyashchennyy XX-letiyu Rossiyskoy Konstitu¬tsii [Problem of the Turn of Performance of Obligations by Depositing a Debt into the Notary's Deposit. Collection of Scientific Pa¬pers Dedicated to the 20th Anniversary of the Russian Constitution]. Moscow, 2014. Pp. 67–74. (In Russ.).
16. Komissarova E. G. Nastojashhee i budushhee notarial'nogo depozita [Present and Future of Notarial Deposit]. Notarial'nyy vestnik – Notary Bulletin. 2013. Issue 3. Pp. 15–24. (In Russ.).
17. Mejer D. I. Russkoe grazhdanskoe pravo v
2-kh ch. [Russian Civil Law in 2 parts]. Part 2. Moscow, 1997. Pp. 106–156. (In Russ.).
18. Mikheeva L. Ju. O sud'be ispolnennogo putem vneseniya dolga v depozit: predlozheniya k proektu modernizatsii GK RF [On the Obli¬gation Performed by the Consignation of Debt: Proposals for the Project of Modernization of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation]. Vestnik ekonomicheskogo pravosudiya – Herald of Economic Justice. 2015. Issue 1. Pp. 12–18. (In Russ.).
19. Mozolin V. P. Razvitie grazhdanskogo zakono¬datel'stva na sovremennom etape [Develop¬ment of Civil Law Nowadays]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava – Journal of Russian Law. 2005. Issue 7. Pp. 33–45. (In Russ.).
20. Nasirov Kh. T. Soderzhanie subsidiarnykh obyazatel'stv [Substance of Subsidiary Obli-gations]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Juri¬dicheskie nauki – Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2012. Issue 1. Pp. 149–156. (In Russ.).
21. Rasskazova N. Ju. Ispolnenie obyazatel'stva putem vneseniya dolga v depozit notariusa [Performance of the Obligation by Depositing a Debt into the Notary's Deposit]. Praktika primenenija obshhikh polozheniy ob obyaza¬tel'stvakh: Sb. statey. Serija "Analiz sovremen¬nogo prava" [Practice of Applying General Provisions on Obligations: Collection of Ar¬ticles. Series "Analysis of Modern Law"]. Moscow, 2011. Pp. 109–132. (In Russ.).
22. Ryzhenkova T. V. Spetsifika protsessa trans-terminologizatsii v otraslevoj terminosisteme: avtoref. dis. ... kand. filol. nauk [Specific Features of the Process of Transtermino¬logization in a Branch System of Terminology: Synopsis of Cand. philol. sci. diss.]. Volgograd, 2001. 22 p. (In Russ.).
23. Sulejmenov M. K. Tret'i litsa v grazhdanskom prave [Third Parties in Civil Law]. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo – Soviet State and Law. 1978. Issue 3. Pp. 123–128. (In Russ.).
24. Sukhanov E. A. Ostorozhno: grazhdansko-pra¬vovye konstruktsii! [Mind out: Civil Law Constructions!]. Zakonodatel'stvo – Legisla-tion. 2003. Issue 9. Pp. 60–65. (In Russ.).
25. Turanin V. Ju. Yuridicheskaya terminologiya v sovremennom rossiyskom zakonodatel'stve: teoretiko-pravovoe issledovanie: dis. ... d-ra yurid. nauk [Legal Language in the Modern Russian Legislation: Theoretical and Practical Research: Dr. jurid. sci. diss.]. Belgorod, 2017. 437 p. (In Russ.).
26. Finansovoe pravo: Uchebnik; otv. red. S. V. Zapol'skij [Financial Law: Textbook; ed. by S. V. Zapol'skij]. Moscow, 2011. 792 p. (In Russ.).
27. Churilov Ju. A. Tret'i litsa v objazatel'stven-nom prave Rossijskoj federatsii [TThird Parties in the Russian Federation Law of Obligations]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universi¬teta – Tomsk State University Journal. 2017. Issue 415. Pp. 206–211. (In Russ.).
28. Shaukenov A. T. Prolegomeny k teorii nalogo¬vykh objazatel'stv (na primere kazakhstanskogo zakonodatel'stva) [Prolegomena to the Theory of Tax Liabilities (by the Example of Kazakh¬stan Legislation)]. Pravovedenie – Pravo¬vedenie. 2006. Issue 4. Pp. 209–222. (In Russ.).
29. Shershenevich G. F. Nauka grazhdanskogo prava v Rossii; nauch. red. V. S. Em [Science of Civil Law In Russia; ed. by V. S. Em]. Moscow, 2003. 250 p. (In Russ.).
30. Brox H., Walker W. D. Allgemeines Schul-drecht. 31st ed. Munich, 2006. 477 p. (In Germ.).
31. Elliott C., Quinn F. Contract Law. Pearson Education Limited, 2011. 270 p. (In Eng.).
32. Ferrari F., Bocharova N. The Astreinte in the Italian and Russian Administrative (Judicial) and Civil Proceedings. Russian Law Journal. 2015. Issue 3. Pp. 9–45. (In Eng.).
33. Huber U. Leistungsstörungen. Vol. I. Tübin-gen, 1999. 773 p. (In Germ.).
34. Schlechtriem P., Schmidt-Kessel M. Schul-drecht. Allgemeiner Teil. 6th ed. Mohr Siebeck, 2005. 431 p. (In Germ.).
Received: 09.03.2018
Financing: ---




The Perm State University
614990, Perm, street Bukireva, 15
+7 (342) 2 396 275, +7 963 012 6422
ISSN 1995-4190 ISSN (eng.) 2618-8104
ISSN (online) 2658-7106
DOI 10.17072/1995-4190
(с) Editorial board, 2010
The magazine is registered in Federal Agency of supervision in sphere of communication and mass communications.
The certificate on registration of mass media ПИ № ФС77-33087 from September, 5th, 2008
The certificate on reregistration of mass media ПИ № ФС77-53189 from Marth, 14th, 2013

The magazine is included in List ВАК and in the Russian index of scientific citing

The founder & Publisher: the State educational institution of the higher training
“The Perm State University”.
Publishing 4 times a year